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1.2. 音素(Phonemes)

在自然语音中,不可继续分割的组成部分被称为音素(phonemes)。英语的音素分为元音辅音

In natural speech, indivisible sound segments are referred to as phonemes. English language categorizes these phonemes into two types: vowels and consonants.

英文的音素音标标注其发音。遗憾的是,英文音标标注方式并不统一。

In English, phonemes are annotated by phonetic symbols to indicate pronunciation. Unfortunately, there's no universal standard for English phonetic notation.

我们在这里采用了 Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (CEPD) 的音标标注体系。

Here, we use the phonetic notation system from the Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary.

NOTE

CEPD 的英式英语的音标是 D.J. 音标体系;而它的美式英语的音标采用的是国际音标体系(IPA);其详细说明请参考 CEPD 的官方网址[1]

The phonetic notation for British English in CEPD uses the D.J. system, while for American English, it adopts the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For a detailed explanation, please refer to the official CEPD website:

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/help/phonetics.html

1.2.1. 元音(Vowels)

VowelsExamples
ʌ cup kʌp
ɑː father ˈfɑːðɚ
e head hed
æ hat hæt
ə above əˈbʌv
ɚ mother ˈmʌðɚ
ɝː bird bɝːd
ɪ ship ʃɪp
i happy ˈhæpi
sheep ʃiːp
ɔː horse hɔːrs
ʊ foot fʊt
u situation ˌsɪtʃuˈeɪʃən
blue bluː
day deɪ
eye
ɔɪ boy bɔɪ
nose noʊs
mouth maʊθ
ɪr ear ɪr
er hair her
ʊr pure pjʊr
aɪr fire faɪr
aʊr hour aʊr

1.2.2. 辅音(Consonants)

ConsonantsExamples
p pen pen
b book bʊk
t town taʊn
cutting ˈkʌt̬ɪŋ
d day deɪ
k cat kæt
g give ɡɪv
f fish fɪʃ
v very ˈveri
s say seɪ
z zoo zuː
θ think θɪŋk
ð this ðɪs
ʃ she ʃiː
ʒ vision ˈvɪʒən
h hand hænd
cheese tʃiːz
jump dʒʌmp
ts treats triːts
dz friends frendz
m moon muːn
n name neɪm
ŋ sing sɪŋ
l look lʊk
r run rʌn
w we wiː
j yes jes

1.2.3. 重音符号(Stress symbols)

SymbolsFunctionsExamples
ˈprimary stressvision ˈvɪʒən
ˌsecondary stresscontroversial ˌkɑːntrəˈvɝːʃəl

  1. A Github repo offers a JSON format database of CEPD. ↩︎