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2. 器官(Articulators)

尽管说着不同的语言,人类的大脑构造和发声器官(articulators)构造却都是一样的。也正因为如此,所有的人类幼崽都具备习得地球上任何一种语言的潜能 —— 这其实还真是一个颇有些惊人却又常常被忽视的事实。

Despite speaking different languages, humans share the same structure of brain and articulators. It's this commonality that grants every human infants the potential to master any language on Earth - a fascinating yet often overlooked fact.

说话对大脑来说是一项异常复杂的活动,大约要它协调差不多 100 块的肌肉才能发出一个音素的声音[1]

Speaking is an extraordinarily complex activity for the brain, requiring its coordination of nearly 100 muscles just to produce a single phoneme.

我们用说话…… 更详细地讲,我们说话的时候动用的器官实际上很多,包括但不限于:下巴lower jaw)、嘴唇lips)、牙齿teeth)、龈脊alveolar ridge)、舌尖tongue tip)、舌背tongue roof)、舌尾back of tongue)、软腭soft palate)、pharynx)、larynx)、声带vocal cords)等等。

Speech Tract (zh-CN)

We use our mouths as a means of communication... To elaborate, when we speak, many parts of our body are actually involved, including but not limited to: lower jaw (or mandible), lips, teeth; alveolar ridge (the small bump right behind your upper front teeth); tongue tip and rongue roof or dorsum; hard palate and soft palate, and then throat areas which can be further divided into two parts: pharynx and larynx. Last but not least come your voice makers - vocal cords.

Speech Tract (zh-CN)

另外一个重要的方面是呼吸breathe)—— 也就是说,肺也可以算作是发声器官 —— 呼吸不仅影响声音,也影响节奏;因为换气的必要,自然语流中总是存在停顿pause)。

The act of breathing also plays a vital role — in other words, the lungs can also be considered as one of articulators - the breath not only affects speech sound quality but rhythm too due to natural pauses for airflow regulation during continuous speech flow.

以下的 X 光视频展示了一个歌手在演唱歌曲时发声器官的活动情况[2]

Here's an X-ray video showcasing the movement of a singer's articulators while performing a song:


When you think about it, speaking or singing is like oral gymnastics, but the real workout is for the neurons in your brain and the connections among them.

英文元音发声时最需要注意的发声器官是嘴唇,有两个元音(及其它们各自的长短版本)被称作 rounded vowelsuɔ,必须将嘴唇略微凸出并缩成一个小圆形。

When pronouncing English vowels, the most critical articulators to pay attention to is lips. There are two vowels, along with their long and short versions, known as rounded vowels, which are u and ɔ. For these, you must slightly protrude your lips and form them into a small circle.


而英文辅音发声时最需要注意的发声器官之一是舌头,很多辅音都需要舌尖正确的位置开始发声…… 以下展示的是英文中舌尖最常用的 4 个位置:

When pronouncing English consonants, one of the most critical articulators is your tongue. Many consonants require the tongue tip to start making a sound from the right position... What follows are the 4 most common positions of the tongue tip in English:



The table below shows the relationship between the initial position of the tongue tip and corresponding consonant sounds. We'll delve deeper into this topic in upcoming sections:

Positions of tongue tipConsonants
θ, ð
s, z
t, d, l, ʃ, ʒ, , , tr, dr

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