Skip to content

2.1.3. ʌ/ɑː/aːr

从唇形上来看,ʌ 的唇形最小,ɑːr 的唇形最大。

In terms of mouth shape, the vowel sound ʌ requires the lips to be the most closed, while the vowel sound ɑːr requires the lips to be the most open.

mouth shape of ʌ/ɑ

美音的 ʌ 实际上非常接近于英音的 ə,比如,but bʌt 听起来更接近于 bət

The American pronunciation of ʌ is actually quite similar to ə. For instance, the word but, pronounced bʌt, often sounds more like bət.

美国人还会再进一步,会把很多非重读音节内的元音简化为 ə —— 对此还有个专门的术语,将其称为 schwa。所以,encourage 这个词英国人和美国人读得不太一样,英国人会读作 ɪnˈkʌrɪdʒ,但,美国人却将其被读成 ɪnˈkɝːədʒ—— 不仅要将 ʌ 读成 ɝː(长元音),还要将 ɪ 变成 schwa, ə……

They even go a step further, simplifying many unstressed vowel sounds to ə, which is particularly referred to as a schwa. So, the word encourage is pronounced differently by Brits and Americans. Brits say ɪnˈkʌrɪdʒ, while Americans pronounce it as ɪnˈkɝːədʒ. In this case, not only is ʌ pronounced as ə, but the ɪ also turns into a schwa, ə...

在美式英语中,ɑː 常常会被儿化 —— 加上一个卷舌音 r,所以很多美式词典干脆用 ɑr 标注。比如,card kɑːrd, mark mɑːrk

The vowel ɑː is often rhotacized - meaning it is followed by a r sound, which leads to many American Dictionaries replacing ɑː with ɑr. For example, card is pronounced as kɑːrd, and mark as mɑːrk.

英音中的短元音 ɒ,在美音中读作 ɑː。比如,hot, 英音是 hɒt,美音是 hɑːt

The short vowel ɒ in British English, is pronounced as ɑː. For instance, the word hot is pronounced hɒtin British English and hɑːtin American English.

请注意,在 CEPD 中,对应着英音 ɒ 的美音 ɑː 虽然带着一个长元音符号,它实际的长度相当于半长元音,即,它比短元音长一些,比长元音短一些。除了 CEPD 之外,大多词典会把 hot 的音标标注为 hɑt —— 即,没有长元音符号。按照 CEPD 的标注,可以这么理解:在美式英语中,ʌ 最短,ɑː 更长一些,而 ɑːr 最长。

Please note that in CEPD, the American English sound ɑː, corresponding to the British ɒ, is denoted with a long vowel symbol. However, its actual duration is akin to a semi-long vowel - slightly longer than a short vowel but shorter than a long vowel. Apart from CEPD, most dictionaries would transcribe hot as /hɑt/, without the long vowel symbol. In accordance with CEPD's notation, you can understand it this way: in American English, ʌ is the shortest, ɑː is a bit longer, and ɑːr` is the longest.

英音中的 ɑː 在美式英语中读作 æ,最常见的例子是 ask,英音是 ɑːsk,美音是 æsk

In American English, the British ɑː sound is pronounced as æ. The most common example is the word ask. In British English, it's pronounced as ɑːsk, while in American English, it's pronounced as æsk.