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2.2.1. 辅音分类(Categorization of Consonants)

辅音可以根据发声时声带是否震动被分为清辅音(voiceless consonants)与浊辅音(voiced consonants)。清辅音只有气流震动,没有声带振动,而浊辅音的气流震动却伴有声带振动。比如,s 是清辅音,z 是浊辅音。

Consonants can be classified into two categories based on whether or not the vocal cords vibrate when the sound is produced. These two categories are voiceless consonants and voiced consonants. Voiceless consonants are produced solely by the vibration of air flow, without the involvement of the vocal cords. Voiced consonants, on the other hand, are produced by the vibration of both the air flow and the vocal cords. For instance, s is a voiceless consonant, while z is a voiced consonant.

consonants
voicelessp, t, k, f, s, θ, ʃ, h, , tr, ts
voicedb, d, g, v, z, ð, ʒ, r, , dr, dz, m, n, ŋ, l

wy 这两个辅音被称为半元音 —— 无法用声带振动与否分类。

The consonants w and y are referred to as semi-vowels - they can't be categorized based on whether the vocal cords vibrate or not.

辅音的另外一个划分,是根据气流振动的方式和位置。

Another way to categorize consonants is based on the method and location of airflow vibration.

AirflowVoiced or notConsonants
PlosiveVoicelessp, t, k
Voicedb, d, g
FricativeVoicelessf, s, θ, ʃ, h
Voicedv, z, ð, ʒ
AffricateVoiceless, tr, ts
Voiced, dr, dz
NasalVoicedm, n, ŋ
LateralVoicedl, r
Semivowelj, w

作为初学者,你无需尝试记忆这些分类和术语 —— 除非将来你有多余的时间精力。这些语言学的概念,并不构成任何学习障碍。你需要了解的只不过是分类的依据声带振动与否,以及气流振动方式和位置

As a beginner, there's no need for you to try and memorize these categories, and terms — unless you find some extra time and energy in the future. These linguistic concepts won't pose any learning obstacles. What you need to understand are the criteria used for classifications: whether the vocal cords vibrate or not, as well as the method and location of airflow vibration.