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2.2.13. m, n, ŋ

mn 处于音节开头时,没有人会觉得困难。尤其是 m…… 因为它也许是人类学会说的第一个辅音;于此同时,ɑ 永远是人类学会的第一个元音,所以大家都用 称呼自己的母亲。

When m and n are at the beginning of a syllable, no one finds it challenging. Especially m, since it might be the first consonant humans learn to utter. At the same time, ɑ is always the first vowel humans learn, which is why is a universal sound for mother.

ŋ 处于其它元音之后对所有人来说也同样不构成困难,因为英文中最常用的不过是 ɪŋ 而已……

Similarly, everyone finds it easy to pronounce ŋ after other vowels. This isn't surprising, given that ɪŋ is the most commonly used sounds in English.

麻烦在于 m 处于音节末尾的时候。很多人会不由自主地额外加上一个 ʊ 的音,这是一个嘴唇的多余动作产生的结果。比如,把 room ruːm 读成 ruːmʊ

The tricky part comes when m is at the end of a syllable. A lot of people have an involuntary habit of adding an extra ʊ sound, which results from an unnecessary lips' movement. For instance, they might pronounce room as ruːmʊ, instead of ruːm.

m/n 处于 f/v 之前的时候,发音都会发生变化 —— 这是因为 f/v 的发声动作,需要上牙与下唇接触。

When m/n precedes f/v, their pronunciation changes - this is because the vocalization of f/v requires the upper teeth to touch the lower lip.

  • m + f/v = n + f/v, comfort ˈkəmfərtˈkənfərt
  • n + f/v = ŋ + f/v, conversation ˌkɑnvərˈseɪʃənˌkɑŋvərˈseɪʃən

另外,当 æm 之前的时候,部分母语使用者会添一个 ə 进去,比如,Sam sæm,会被他们读成 sæəm

Additionally, when the vowel sound æ comes before m, some native speakers add an extra ə sound. For example, Sam sæm can sometimes be pronounced as sæəm.