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2.2.14. l, r

l 发声时起始的舌尖位置与 t/d 相同 —— 即,位置 ③(参见 1.4)。

When pronouncing the 'l' sound, the tip of the tongue starts in the same position as it does for 't/d', i.e. position ③ (as described in 1.4).

articulator-tongue-tip-td

r 发声时起始的舌尖位置相对更加靠后 —— 即,位置 ④(参见 1.4

For the 'r' sound, the tongue's tip begins a bit further back, i.e. position ④ (as described in 1.4).

articulator-tongue-tip-r

lr 处于音节开头的时候,人们一般不会觉得困难,比如 lot lɑːt 或者 rot rɑːt……

Pronouncing l and r at the beginning of syllables usually is of no difficulty at all, for example in words like lot' lɑːt or rot rɑːt

l 的困难总是来自于它们处在音节末尾的时候。

The difficulty with l often arises when it's at the end of a syllable.

不妨尝试着先读一下 milk mɪlk…… 很多人读出来的实际上是 mjʊk……

Feel free to give the word milk mɪlk a try... Many people actually pronounce it more like mjʊk...

l 在音节末尾的时候,有一个看不到的动作,舌尖会向前向上移动直至贴到龈脊。于是,音节末尾的 l 会掺杂着一个轻微的 ə 的元音音色。

There's a hidden motion when the l is at the end of a syllable. The tip of the tongue moves forward and upward until it touches the alveolar ridge. Therefore, the l at the end of a syllable has a slight vowel sound ə mixed in.

说实话,倒也不是特别难,这只不过是几分钟就可以解决的问题。

Actually, it's not too challenging. With just a few minutes, it can be easily corrected.

  • 先反复说 ə... əl... ə... əl... 这里格外需要注意:嘴唇张开之后没有其它动作,不要带嘴唇变化造成的 ʊ 的音色;从 əl 的过程中,保持声带振动,剩余的全靠舌尖移动完成……
  • Start by repeating ə... əl... ə... əl... Here's a crucial point: after opening lips, make no other movements. Avoid adding the sound of ʊ caused by lip changes. During the transition from ə to əl, while maintaining vocal cord vibration, let the tip of your tongue handle the rest...
  • 接着直接反复说 əl... əl...
  • Next, repeating əl... əl...
  • 再反复说 əlk... əlk...
  • Follow with repeating əlk... əlk...
  • 现在反复说 mɪəlk... mɪəlk... 现在需要格外注意:为了 m 发声所以需要张开嘴唇,但,此后嘴唇没有其他动作,否则会带着 ʊ 的音色……
  • Now, keep saying mɪəlk... mɪəlk.... Again, pay special attention here: lips are opened to make the m sound, but after that, there should be no other lip movement, thus avoiding unnecessary ʊ sound.

再用同样的方式练练 girl ɡɝːl(常常会被误读成 gəʊ), world wɝːld(常常会被误读成 wəʊd)。

Practice pronouncing girl ɡɝːl (often mispronounced as gəʊl) and world wɝːld (often mispronounced as wəʊd) the same way.

l 处于音节末尾的常用词汇很多,读得时候要注意,要加上 ə,比如:

There are many common words where l ends the syllable. Be sure to include the ə sound when pronouncing them. For example:

fail feɪl, file faɪl, sell sel, sale seɪl, tell tel, tale teɪl, trail treɪl, drill drɪl...

注意,ʌl 没有 ə 的加音,因为 ʌə 原本就非常相近。比如,ultimate ˈʌltɪmət,或者 result rɪˈzəlt。另外,在自然语音中,iːl 要注意。比如, reveal,词典里的音标是 rɪˈviːl, 但它的确读做 rɪˈviːəl,有加音 ə,但,revealing,读作 rɪˈviːlɪŋ,没有加音 ə,可能是因为 l 被挪到后面和 ɪŋ 构成了第三个音节 lɪŋ……

Note that ʌl doesn't have the schwa (ə) sound added, since ʌ and ə are already very similar. For instance, ultimate ˈəltəmət, or result rɪˈzəlt. Also, pay attention to iːl in natural speech. For example, while reveal is noted as rɪˈviːl in dictionary, and indeed pronounced as rɪˈviːəl, with the schwa sound, revealing is pronounced as rɪˈviːlɪŋ, without the schwa. This change might be due to the fact that the l sound has been moved to form a third syllable with ɪŋ as lɪŋ.

l 在语言学里有个专门的称呼,叫做音节辅音,就是因为它的发声动作如果完整的话,前面就会自然附加着一个轻微的元音 ə 的音色。比如,little ˈlɪtl̩ —— l 下面多出的那一个点 的意思是说,这里的 是个音节辅音,相当于 ᵊl…… 当然,很多词典干脆就直接标注成了 ˈlɪtᵊl 或者 ˈlɪtəl。CEPD 里标注的是 ˈlɪt̬əl,因为 t 夹在两个元音之间,变成了弹舌音

In linguistics, the letter l has a particular name - it's called a syllabic consonant. This is because when it is fully pronounced, a subtle vowel sound ə naturally attaches to the front of it. For example, in the word little ˈlɪtl̩, the dot under the l () indicates that this l is a syllabic consonant. It's equivalent to ᵊl. And many dictionaries simply denote it as ˈlɪtəl. The pronunciation indicated in the CEPD is ˈlɪt̬əl, for the t is sandwiched between two vowels, which in this case becomes a flapped .

英文中另外一个音节辅音m。例如,chasm ˈkæzm̩,相当于 ˈkæzəm, prism ˈprɪzm̩,相当于 ˈprɪzəm

Another syllabic consonant in English is m. For example, chasm ˈkæzm̩,equivalent to ˈkæzəm, and prism ˈprɪzm̩,equivalent to ˈprɪzəm.