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2.2.3 t/d

虽然每种语言都有这两个辅音,但,英文的 t/d 的发声关键在于起始的舌尖位置 —— 顶在龈脊alveolar ridge)上,而不是贴在牙齿上 —— 即,位置 ③(参见 1.4)。

While every language has the consonants t and d, the key to pronouncing them in English lies in the starting position of the tip of the tongue - it should touch the alveolar ridge, i.e. position ③ (as described in 1.4), not the teeth.

articulator-tongue-tip-td

在中文普通话里,t/d 这两个声母发声时起始的舌尖位置贴在牙齿上;你可以试着用中文普通话说一遍 “我踢死你!”(wǒ tī sǐ nǐ……

In Mandarin Chinese, the starting position of the tongue tip for the t and d sounds rests on the teeth. You can try this out by saying "wǒ tī sǐ nǐ" (我踢死你!) in Mandarin.

对中国人来说,起初的时候这是个相当难以纠正的习惯,因为舌尖总是不由自主地贴到牙齿上而不是龈脊上 —— 只能通过大量且高密度的练习建立新习惯。

For Chinese speakers, it's a pretty tough to correct at first because the tongue tip instinctively goes to the teeth, not the alveolar ridge. It can only be corrected through intense and frequent practice to build a new habit.

另外,就好像 p/b 在发音的时候会自然带着一个很轻的 ʊ 一样,t/d 也会自然带着一个很轻的元音,不过,不是 ə 而是 ɤ —— 之前提到过,相当于中文里 “思念” 的 “思”()的韵母(2.1.10)。

Additionally, just as the p and b sound naturally carries a slight ʊ sound in its pronunciation, the t and d sound also carries a light vowel sound. But instead of 'ə', it's ɤ - as previously mentioned, this is equivalent to the vowel in the Chinese word for 思, which is sī.

在中文拼音里,it/d 之后相当于英文音标中的 i;在 z/c/s 之后的 i 才会读成 ɤ…… 所以,依据母语的习惯,中国人习惯于将 t(ɤ) 读作 ,将 d(ɤ) 读作 。需要为此专门建立一个新习惯。

In the Chinese phonetic system, i following t/d is similar to i in English phonetic notation. Meanwhile, i after z/c/s is pronounced as ɤ. So, according to the habits of their native language, Chinese speakers tend to pronounce t(ɤ) as , and d(ɤ) as . This calls for establishing a new habit.

t 这个音素,也许是美式英语的辅音里最复杂的一个 —— 当然也是最常用的一个。美式英语中,t 的变体(allophone)至少有以下几种:

The t sound may be the most complex in American English consonant pronunciations — and certainly one of the most frequently used. In American English, several variations, or allophones, of t exist:

  • 正常音 t - 通常是 t 处于重音音节开头的时候才会被正常读出,比如,take teɪk
  • Standard t - This is the typical pronunciation, when t begins a stressed syllable, as in take teɪk.
  • 阻塞音 t - 处于音节末尾的 t,有时只是舌尖动作完整,却没有发出声音。即,舌尖顶到龈脊之后并没有送出气流。比如,cat kæt。IPA 里有一个专门的标记符号(◌̚)用来标注发声器官动作完整却没有发声因而产生停顿(stop)的辅音(包括 t/d/p/b/k/g)。比如,cat kæt 会被标注成 kæt̚
  • Stop t - This refers to when the t is at the end of a syllable, often the tongue completes the movement but no sound is actually made. In other words, the tongue touches the ridge of the alveolar ridge but doesn't release a flow of air. An example of this can be found in the word cat kæt. And in IPA, there's a specific notation symbol, represented as ◌̚, used to mark consonants like t/d/p/b/k/g that are fully articulated but not voiced, resulting in a stop. For instance, the word cat, pronounced as kæt, would be notated as kæt̚.
  • 弹舌音 - 夹在两个元音中间的 t 会变成接近 d 的弹舌音 ,比如,water ˈwɑːt̬ɚ
  • Flaping : When t is situated between two vowels, it tends to be flaping , sounding like d, as in water ˈwɑːt̬ɚ.
  • 喉塞音 ʔ - m/n/l 之前的 t 有可能变成喉塞音 ʔ,比如,utmost ˈʌʔˌmoʊst, fitness ˈfɪʔnəs, witness ˈwɪʔnəs, 或 fruitless ˈfruːtləs。如果你不知道喉塞音是什么样的,听听 Uh-Oh! —— ʌʔoʊ……
  • Glottal Stop ʔ - The t before m/n/l might transform into a glottal stop, as in utmost ˈʌʔˌmoʊst, fitness ˈfɪʔnəs, witness ˈwɪʔnəs, or fruitless ˈfruːtləs. If you don't understand what is a glottal stop, listen to the phrase, Uh-Oh! —— ʌʔoʊ...
  • 省略音 - n 之后的 t 可能会被省略掉,比如,winter ˈwɪnᵗər —— 当然,若是读成 ˈwɪntər也没错……
  • Optional - The t following n might be omitted, as in winter ˈwɪnᵗər - of course, ˈwɪntəris also correct.

美式发音中,相对最特殊也需要最多注意和练习的辅音是 t,元音是 ɚ/ɝː2.1.5)。

In American English pronunciation, the consonant t and the vowel sound ɚ/ɝː (2.1.5) deserve special attention and practice due to their unique characteristics.