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2.2.6. s/z

s/z 对所有人来说都没有什么具体的难度。s/z 发声时起始的舌尖位置贴近但没有接触到牙齿和牙龈的接缝处 —— 即,位置 ②(参见 1.4)。

The s/z sounds don't really pose a challenge for most people. When producing these sounds, the tip of the tongue is close to, but not touching, the seam between teeth and gums, i.e. position ② (as described in 1.4).


中文里当然也有 s 这个音,但,中文里的 s 在发音时舌尖起始位置更接近下排牙齿,即,比位置 ② 更低一些 —— 虽然听不出什么区别。你可以再试着用中文普通话说一遍 “我踢死你!”(wǒ tī sǐ nǐ…… 不过,作为中国人你需要新练一个 s,否则,说英文时经常遇到更费力的情况,比如,在说 st 这个组合的时候 —— 这恰好也是英文中使用频率相当高的一个组合。

Of course, the sound s exists in Chinese as well, but when you pronounce it, the tip of your tongue starts closer to the lower teeth—slightly lower than position ②, even though you can't really hear the difference. Again, you can try this out by saying "wǒ tī sǐ nǐ" (我踢死你!) in Mandarin.However, for Chinese speakers, it's necessary to practice a new s sound to make speaking English less strenuous, especially when saying combinations like st — which happens to be a very common combination in English.

另外,需要注意的是,s 之后的 p/t/tr/k 作为音节开头时会被浊化(比如,音节末尾的 st 中的 t 不会被浊化),相应读成 b/d/dr/g(但是,音标标注却保持原样):

Also, it's important to note that, following an s that starts a syllable, p/t/tr/k are voiced, meaning they are pronounced like b/d/dr/g respectively, while the phonetic annotations remain unchanged. However, this rule doesn't apply when these consonants are at the end of a syllable, like the t in st:

  • speak spiːksbiːk
  • student ˈstudəntˈsdudənt
  • school skuːlsguːl
  • frustrate ˈfrʌˌstreɪtˈfrʌˌsdreɪt

另外,英文的辅音并没有长短区分 —— 有些语言的辅音是有长短区分的,虽然亚洲语言基本都没有这种差别。然而,英文的 f/vs/zʃ 以及 ts 是可以拉长的,尤其是 sts

In addition, in English, there's no differentiation between long and short consonant sounds. This is a feature found in some languages but is generally not present in Asian languages. However, in English, the sounds of f/v, s/z, ʃ, and ts can be lengthened, especially s and ts.