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2.2.7 θ/ð

对很多人来说,θ/ð 相对较难 —— 主要是因为很多语言中没有这两个音,比如,中日韩都一样,都没有这两个音。

For many people, producing the sounds θ/ð can be a challenge. This is primarily because these sounds aren't present in many languages. For instance, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean are all languages that don't have these sounds.

articulator-tongue-tip-th

虽然,英语老师们都强调说,发这两个音的时候要用牙齿咬住一点点舌尖再发声,也就是说,舌尖要伸出牙齿一点点 —— 这么做当然发声更为清楚,在读单个音节或词汇的时候尤为明显……

English teachers often emphasize that to produce these sounds, you should lightly bite the tip of your tongue with your teeth before vocalizing it - meaning, the tip of your tongue should slightly stick out past your teeth. Utilizing this technique undoubtedly makes your pronunciation clearer, especially when articulating individual syllables or words.

但是,在连贯的自然语音之中,会有大量处于非重音位置的 θ/ð 发声时起始的舌尖位置并没有伸到牙齿之外,只是贴在牙齿上而已 —— 即,位置 ①(参见 1.4)。反过来,即便是处于重音位置的 θ/ð, 也一样可以把发声动作简化一下,只要舌尖贴到牙齿上,而后开始发音即可。

However, within the flow of natural speech, many instances of the θ/ð that are in non-stressed positions start with the tongue tip not extending beyond the teeth, but only resting against them— that is, position ① (as described in 1.4). Even when θ/ð phonemes are in stressed positions, the articulation can be simplified. All you need to do is place the tip of the tongue against the teeth, and then begin to vocalize.

最初练习的时候,可以借助 s/z 作为辅助:

  • 先发 s 的音,而后,把舌尖往前推一点点就接触到了牙齿,然后以与 s 同样的方式发音,就能听到 θ;然后分别说两个词 sink sɪŋkthink θɪŋk……
  • 先发 z 的音,而后,把舌尖往前推一点点就接触到了牙齿,然后以与 z 同样的方式发音,就能听到 ð;然后分别说两个词 zed zedthat ðæt……

When you first start practicing, you can use the sounds of s/z as guides to help:

  • Begin by making the s sound. Then, gently push the tip of your tongue forward until it touches your teeth. After this, produce the sound in the same way as s, and you should hear the θ. Practice this with words like sink sɪŋk and think θɪŋk...
  • Start with the z sound. Again, push the tip of your tongue forward until it contacts your teeth. Create the sound as you would with z, and you should notice the ð. Try this with words such as zed zed and that ðæt...