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2.2.8. ʃ/ʒ

ʃ 对很多人来说也许难度并不大,然而,ʒ 却可能非常难。再一次,关键在于发声时舌尖的起始位置 —— 即,位置 ③(参见 1.4

The pronunciation of ʃ may not pose much of a challenge for many people, yet ʒ can be extremely tough. Once again, the key lies in the initial position of the tongue tip when making the sound, i.e. position ③ (as described in 1.4).

articulator-tongue-tip-sh

比较一下以下的辅音:

Let's compare following consonants:

  • t/d 的舌尖起始位置时贴在龈脊的前部 ③;
  • For t/d, the tongue tip begins at the front part of alveolar ridge ③;
  • s/z 要相对于 t/d 往前一些,贴近但没有接触到牙齿和牙龈的接缝处 ②;
  • For s/z, it's closer to the front compared to t/d, near but not touching the seam between the teeth and gums ②;
  • θ/ð 要相对于 s/z再往前一些,贴在牙齿上,或者伸出牙齿一点点 ①;
  • For θ/ð, it's even more forward than s/z, resting on the teeth, or protruding a bit ①;
  • ʃ/ʒt/d 一样,贴近但没有接触到龈脊的那个部位 ③;
  • For ʃ/ʒ, it's almost same as t/d, near but not touching the part of the alveolar ridge ③;
  • r 相对于 ʃ/ʒ 还要再往后一点,贴在龈脊的那个部位 ④……
  • For r, it's further back than ʃ/ʒ, touching the part of the alveolar ridge ④...

articulator-tongue-tip-positions

除了英语之外,大多语言里没有 ʒ 这个辅音。即便是在英语里,含有这个辅音的词汇也很少,常见的不过几十个而已。

Apart from English, most languages do not have the ʒ consonant. Even in English, there are only a handful of words that contain this sound.

中国学生会不由自主地用 替代 ʒ —— 因为 是一个他们熟悉的辅音,相当于中文拼音中的 zhʒ 的区别在于,ʒ 发声时舌尖贴近但没有接触到龈脊;而 发声时起始的舌尖贴在龈脊(与 ʒ 同一个位置 ③)。

Chinese students tend to instinctively substitute ʒ with - a consonant they're familiar with, equivalent to the zh in Chinese Pinyin. The difference between ʒ and is that, when pronouncing ʒ, the tip of the tongue is close to but not touching the the alveolar ridge while for , the tongue tip starts at the the alveolar ridge (same position as ʒ ③).

少数人知道 替代 ʒ 不是一回事,但,由于舌尖起始位置并不准确,所以他们说出来的 ʒ 听起来更接近 r —— 舌尖缩得过头了 —— r ④ 发声时起始的舌尖位置相对于 ʒ ③ 要更靠后一点。

A few understand that substituting for ʒ isn't accurate. However, because their tongue tip positioning isn't precise, their ʒ sound often ends up sounding more like r - they retract their tongue tip too far - r ④ is pronounced with the tongue tip further back compared to ʒ ③ .