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2.3.3 顿与停(Stop and Pause)

在讨论连接linking)之前有必要先研究一下stop)与pause)—— 这一步至关重要、不可或缺。(为了便于理解,在中文表述中,我们用 “停顿” 表示 “顿”,用 “暂停” 表示 “停”。)

Before delving into the concepts of linking words, it's essential to first understand stops and pauses, which is a crucial step and can't be overlooked.

在自然语流中,多音节词汇里常常夹杂着停顿stop)—— 这是很多初学者干脆感受不到的,所以,他们不是忽略了那些停顿,而是可能压根就不知道某些地方竟然存在停顿。

In natural speech flow, many polysyllabic words are often peppered with breaks. This is something many beginners might not even notice, not because they ignore these breaks, but because they might not realize there are supposed to be breaks in certain places.

一个常见的停顿来自于重读音节。当我们想要强调某个音节的时候,为了能把它读得相对较重,在此之前往往需要停顿一下 —— 做个准备。

When we want to emphasize a syllable, we often need to stop briefly before it to prepare for the pronunciation.

比如,你可以试着读一下 absolutely ˌæbsəˈluːtli…… 为了把 luː 这个音节读成重音(顺带说,这是个长元音),你可能就会不由自主地在发出 之后略微停顿一下…… 拿之前的例子 individual ˌɪndəˈvɪdʒuəl 再试一下,若是在 之前略微停顿一下,就能相对更为轻松地将它读成重音

Take the word absolutely ˌæbsəˈluːtli for instance. To stress the luː syllable, which is long, you might find yourself involuntarily stopping slightly after pronouncing . The same practice applies to the word individual ˌɪndəˈvɪdʒuəl, which you've practiced before. A brief stop before makes it relatively easier to stress.

另外一个更为常见的停顿相对比较微妙,它就在那里,可不仅听不到,也看不到。

Another frequent stop is more subtle. It's there, but you can't see or hear it.

比如,在 hotdog 这个词里,t 的声音是听不到的,但,它的舌尖动作却是完整的,所以,能够听到的不是 ˈhɑtˌdɔg,也不是 ˈhɑˌdɔg,而是 ˈhɑ·ˌdɔg —— 这里的 · 表示因 t 的舌尖动作完整却没有发出任何声音而产生的停顿。你可以再试试 network ˈnetˌwərk 这个词 —— 这里面的 t 也是同样的机制。(注意,也有人用喉塞音读这里的 t

Consider the word hotdog. You can't hear the t, but the articulation is complete. So instead of hearing ˈhɑtˌdɔg or ˈhɑˌdɔg, you hear ˈhɑ·ˌdɔg – the · represents a stop created by the t sound's complete articulation without any audible output. Try the same with network ˈnetˌwərk – the t applies the same principle. (Note, some people pronounce the t in this context using a glottal stop.)

这类停顿stop),也叫塞音,最常见的有以下几种:

There are several types of stops in English:

  • 唇塞音:pbmfv —— I just cannot help myself. 第四个单词 help 末尾的 p 就是一个唇塞音。
  • Bilabial stop: As in I just cannot help myself , the p in help is a labial stop.
  • 齿塞音:θð —— I wish the path to success was smoother. 第四个单词 pæθ 末尾的 θ 就是一个齿塞音。
  • Dental stop: θ, ð - As in I wish the path to success was smoother, the final θ in pæθ is a dental stop.
  • 龈塞音: td —— He tried to discuss his idea with his boss. 第二个单词 traɪd 末尾的 d 就是一个龈塞音。
  • Alveolar stop: t, d - As in He tried to discuss his idea with his boss, where the final d in traɪd is an alveolar stop.
  • 喉塞音:k, g, t —— IPA 里用 ʔ标注。 I don't think that is true. 第三个单词 think 末尾的 k 就是一个喉塞音,θɪŋʔ ðætuh-oh ɑʔoʊ 是另外一个例子…… t 也有可能用这个喉塞音,比如,utmost ˈʌʔˌmoʊst,或者 ˈneʔwɝːk
  • Glottal stop: k, g, t - In the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), the glottal stop is represented by the symbol ʔ. Take the sentence I don't think that's true for example. At the end of the word think, there's a glottal stop, as in θɪŋʔ ðæt. Another example is the word uh-oh ɑʔoʊ. Also, t can sometimes be replaced with a glottal stop, as in utmost ˈʌʔˌmoʊst or network ˈneʔwɝːk.

不管是哪一种,大多都是因为之前的一个辅音虽然并未发出声音却动作完整造成的。

Regardless of the type, most of such stops occur when a previous consonant is fully articulated without actually producing sound.

除了停顿stop)之外,一句话可能会被分为若干个意群meaning group),意群之间总是有着明显的暂停pause)。

Apart from stops, a sentence can be divided into several meaning groups, each separated by an obvious pause.

先听听这段话的录音[1]

Check out the recording of this stentence:

Yet, it is a fact of life that an unlettered peasant is considered ignorant.

以下是这段音频的 Waveform(波谱)和 Pitch Contour(音高变化):

Here are the Waveform and Pitch Contour for this audio clip:

yet-it-is-a-fact-of-life

  • Pitch Contour 截图来自学习辅助工具 Enjoy
  • The screenshot of the Pitch Contour is from the learning aid App Enjoy.

在 Waveform 里我们可以清楚地看到,这句话里有两处明显的停顿(用 | 标注):

In the Waveform, we can clearly see two significant pauses (marked with |) in this sentence:

Yet, | it is a fact of life | that an unlettered peasant is considered ignorant.

停顿stop)与暂停pause)可以用可否换气进行区分:

The distinction between stop and pause can be clarified by whether or not one has the opportunity to take a breath:

  • 音节之间的停顿stop)通常是不用甚至不能换气的;
  • A stop usually occurs between syllables where you don't need to, and often can't, take a breath;
  • 意群之间的暂停pause)是可以换气的 —— 当然若非必要也可以不换气;
  • A pause typically happens between meaning groups, where you have the opportunity to take a breath - although it's not always necessary to do so.

  1. This audio clip is extracted from the Audible edition of Knowledge and Decisions by Thomas Sowell. ↩︎