Skip to content

2.4.3. 辅音 + 辅音(Consonant + Consonant)

辅音 + 辅音” 的组合需要注意的地方相对较多。

The combination of "consonant + consonant" often requires more attention.

2.4.3.1 省音(elision)

辅音 + 辅音” 的组合,常常会造成前一个辅音虽然发声器官(articulator)动作完整但并不发声的情况,于是会出现一个既 “看不见” 也 “听不到” 的停顿stop2.4.1),之前举过单词内存在这种情况的例子,hotdog ˈhɑːtdɑːɡnetwork ˈnetwɝːk,再比如,hard-nosed hɑːrd-noʊzd, partner ˈpɑːrtnɚ……

A "consonant + consonant" combination often results in an instance where the first consonant is articulated but not voiced, creating an invisible and inaudible stop (2.4.1). Examples of this within words include previously mentioned hotdog ˈhɑːtdɑːɡ and network ˈnetwɝːk, as well as hard-nosed hɑːrd-noʊzd, partner ˈpɑːrtnɚ, and so on.

有人把这种现象叫做 省音elision);但,这种说法容易产生误导,因为音的确是省了,但,动作却没省,不仅没有省,动作还很完整

Some refer to this phenomenon as elision. While it's true that the sound is dropped, the action of articulation isn't skipped – in fact, it's fully completed.

在意群中,更是经常出现前一个词汇末尾是辅音,后一个词汇开头也是辅音的情况 —— 同样会出现省音

Within a meaning group, it's common for a word to end with a consonant and the following word to begin with one, resulting in elision.

2.4.3.2. 叠音(geminates)

上一个音节末尾的辅音和下一个音节开头的辅音相同的时候,这一对相同的辅音被称作叠音geminates)。在连贯的自然语音中,这两个辅音就只发声一次 —— 但听起来的时候,有可能感受到前一个辅音存在造成细微停顿。它从机制上来看,其实和省音2.4.3.1)一样。其实哪怕相邻的两个辅音相似的时候,也会发生同样的现象。

When the same consonant ends one syllable and begins the next, this pair of identical consonants is known as geminates. In fluid, natural speech, these two consonants are vocalized only once— yet, you might sense a slight stop due to the presence of the previous consonant, and its completion of articulating action. Mechanically, this is similar to elision (2.4.3.1). This phenomenon also occurs even when two neighboring consonants are just similar, not identical.

比如,that time, 不是 ðæt taɪm/,而是 ðæ·t̬aɪm —— 第一个 t 由于后面跟着一个辅音,于是产生了省音,听不到了,但,该有的停顿却依然在,在这里我们用 · 代表那个停顿 ;而后,第二个 t 与第三个 t叠音,这两个 t 只发声一次。又比如,bad day, 不是 bæd deɪ,而是 bæ·deɪ。 再比如,with this, 不是 wɪθ ðɪs,而是 wɪ·ðɪs

For instance, at that time is not pronounced as ðæt taɪm, but as ðæ·t̬aɪm. Here, the first t is elided because it is followed by another consonant, so you can't hear it. However, the expected pause is still there, represented by ·. Then, the second t and the third t form a geminate, and are vocalized only once. Similarly, bad day is not pronounced as bæd deɪ, but as bæ·deɪ; with this, is not wɪθ ðɪs,but wɪ·ðɪs.

2.4.3.3. 同化(assimilation)

同化(assimilation)主要有两种情况:

Assimilation, in English pronunciation, primarily happens in two key scenarios:

  • t + j =
  • d + j =

最常见的比如,Don't you? doʊn tʃju?;以及,Would you? wʊ dʒju? 这里的关键在于,t, d 发声时起始的舌尖位置如果放对了(2.2.3),它与后面的 ju 连起来的发声就只能如此。

For example, in daily conversation, we often hear Don't you? pronounced as doʊn tʃju?; and Would you? as wʊ dʒju?. The key here lies in the position of the tongue tip when pronouncing t, d. If placed correctly (as explained in 2.2.3), it naturally leads to such pronunciation when followed by ju.

同化主要发生在 j 这个音上。除了已经讲过的 j 前面遇到 td 时会产生同化之外,

Assimilation mainly happens when a word ends in j. Besides the explained cases where t and d are followed by j,

  • s + j = ʃ
  • z + j = ʒ

比如,s+j 可能会被读成 ʃz+j 可能会被读成 ʒ。再比如,Miss you so much. mɪ ʃu səʊ mʌʧ.It was your job. ɪt wɒ ʒʊr ʤɒb.

For instance, the combination s+j might be pronounced as ʃ, and z+j might be pronounced as ʒ. Here are examples: Miss you so much can be pronounced as mɪ ʃu səʊ mʌʧ.; It was your job can be pronounced as ɪt wɒ ʒʊr ʤɒb.

请注意,这两组是可能,并非一定,并非所有英文母语使用者都如此发音。

However, it's important to note that these are possibilities, not certainties. Not all English native speakers pronounce words this way.

另外一个细节是,k/g 之前的 n,可能会被同化为 ŋ:

  • ten cups, ten kʌpsteŋ kʌps
  • increase, ˌɪnˈkrisˌɪŋˈkris
  • brown gate, braʊn geɪtbraʊŋ geɪt

2.4.3.4. 击穿(dropping)

“辅音 + 辅音” 的组合中,如果第二个辅音是 h 的话,它常常被击穿(dropping),因为 h 原本就是很轻的音,发音时声带并不震动,所以总是自然而然地被前后发音相对更为响亮的声音所掩盖。

In a "consonant + consonant" combination, where the second is h, the h sound often gets dropped, simply due to its soft nature. This is because the vocal cords don't vibrate when pronouncing h, and it naturally gets overshadowed by the louder sounds before and after.

比如,Was he hurt? 三个单词分开读,应该是 wɒz hi həːt 在连贯的语音中,会被读成 wɒzi həːt —— 听不到 h,它被击穿了。

For example, take the sentence Was he hurt? If pronounced separately, it should be wɒz hi həːt. However, when spoken fluidly, it sounds more like wɒzi həːt; the h becomes unnoticeable.

很多美国人在 t 这个音上还有另外一个特殊的习惯,t 跟在 n 之后的时候,美国人说话的方式会让我们听不到那个 t,也就是说,t 也可能被击穿。比如,他们说 interview 的时候你听到的可能是 ˈɪnəˌvju,没有 t

Many Americans have a unique habit with the t sound, especially when it follows n. Their way of speaking often causes the t to disappear. For instance, when they say the word interview, you might hear ˈɪnəˌvju, without the t.

另外,ð 也可能被击穿,基本只发生在 them 这个常用词上。比如,let them let ðəm, 变成了 let-əm,由由于 ð 被击穿了之后,t 等于被夹在了两个元音之间,于是会变成浊化的弹舌音 ,于是,说出来的或者听到的是 let̬əm…… 所以,在快速的自然语流中 let himlet them 实际上几乎没有区别,需要通过上下文确定究竟是 him 还是 them

In addition, the ð sound can also be dropped, primarily in the common word them. For example, let them let ðəm might become let-əm. When the ð is dropped, the t ends up sandwiched between two vowels and turns into the voiced flap . So, what you say or hear becomes let̬əm. Therefore, in fast natural speech, let him and let them sound almost identical and only context can determine whether it's him or them.

2.4.3.5 其它(others)

值得一提的是,m/n + f/v 的情况。词汇之内我们看过 comfort ˈkʌmfɚtconversation ˌkɑːnvɚˈseɪʃən 的例子(2.2.13)。这种情况在意群之内也经常会遇到,比如,stem from, 只能读成 sten frəm……

It's worth mentioning the situation with m/n followed by f/v. We've seen examples of this in words like comfort ˈkʌmfɚt and conversation ˌkɑːnvɚˈseɪʃən(2.2.13). This occurrence is often also found within a meaning group. For instance, stem from can only be pronounced as sten frəm.