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2.5. 韵律(Prosody)

学说话,其实就是低配版的学唱歌。这个类比的好处在于,它让我们把日常连贯的语音理解成一串音节,而不是一些放在一起的单词(一个单词可能有一个以上的音节)—— 因为自然语音,本质上都是以音节为基础单位,而不是以字词为单位的……

Learning to speak is, in many ways, a simpler version of learning to sing. This comparison is useful because it allows us to perceive everyday, fluid speech as a string of syllables, not just a group of words (a single word can have more than one syllable). After all, natural speech is fundamentally based on syllables, not words.

歌曲是有韵律的,自然语音其实也一模一样…… 好听的歌声和好听的语音,简单说,总计需要注意以下几个方面: The prosody of speech is like the rhythm of a song. To make our speech or singing appealing to the ear, there are a few key elements we need to pay attention to. These are:

高低起伏轻重缓急…… 以及,很多人并不重视的停顿2.4.1)。

pitch, tone, emphasis, rhythm, and oft-neglected pauses(2.4.1).

  • 高低指的是音高pitch)的变化。
  • Pitch refers to the high and low variations in voice.
  • 起伏指的是声调tone),即,扬、平、降、轻。
  • tone refers to the tone of voice, whether it's rising, flat, falling, or light.
  • 轻重stress)落实到音节(就好像歌曲中的音符)上来看,就是轻重的安排,重音、次重音、非重音、弱音(2.3.2)。
  • Stress refers to the emphasis placed on a syllable, similar to the emphasis on a note in a song. There are various levels of stress such as primary stress, secondary stress, unstressed, and weak schwa (2.3.2).
  • 缓急rhythm)由一组音节发声的速度构成 —— 在歌曲中,如果 4 个音符在同一个节拍里唱完,每个音符只占 14 拍,那就每个音节都很短很快;或者反过来,如果一个音符竟然持续了 2 个节拍,那就是这个音节很长,但很慢
  • rhythm is the speed at which a group of syllables is spoken. In a song, if four notes are sung in one beat, each note lasts a quarter of a beat, making each syllable short and fast. Conversely, if a single note spans two beats, the syllable is long and slow.

所以,好好说话说得连贯,甚至说得好听,更重要的是学会如何安排好每一个音节,而所谓的 “安排好”,就是处理高低、起伏、轻重、缓急以及停顿

Therefore, to speak well, to speak fluently, even to speak beautifully, we need to learn how to properly arrange each syllable, handling its pitch, tone, stress, rhythm, and stop or pauses.

虽然把每个音素读准读对看起来更基础,但实际上更重要的是每个音节的韵律,即,该音节高低、起伏、轻重、缓急,比这个还重要的,是很多人没想到的音节间可能的停顿

While it might seem more basic to pronounce each phoneme correctly, what's actually more crucial is the prosody of each syllable, including the pitch, variation, stress, and rhythm of the syllable, and what's even more important is the potential stop or pause between syllables, which is something many people overlook.